## Daily Variations in Solar Energy (Lesson 8)

Students will understand that when the sun is lower in the sky, it casts a longer shadow on an object. When the sun is higher in the sky, it casts a smaller shadow. Students will also understand the importance of adjusting the position of a solar oven every half hour or so throughout the cooking process to insure that the bottom of the oven is facing the sun directly in order to maximize heat absorption.

Students will observe and articulate that even on cloudless days, the amount of solar energy changes with the time of day and the time of year. Solar energy is strongest when the sun is high in the sky (when shadows are shortest). The sun shines more directly into the solar cooker when the sun is highest in the sky. View full description >>

## DC to AC to DC Efficiency (Lesson 5)

1. Students will use multimeters to measure voltage and current in circuits.

2. Students will use collected data and be able to make power calculations from this data.

3. Students will also be able to calculate efficiency from their power calculations.

4. Students will be able to compare efficiencies in order to identify the circuit that is most

efficient.

5. Students will be able to make circuits from a diagram and vice versa.

6. Students will know what an inverter is and what it does.

This is part of the Off the Grid Unit. This lesson will continue to deal with efficiency

## Designing a Faster Water Pump (Lesson 7)

Students will be able to use available tools to design and test a solar water pump, refine their design, test and finally evaluate their efforts. Through this process students will understand and gain experience with the engineering design process.

Students use all their prior knowledge to design and construct a water pump that can pump 1 cup of water the fastest. View full description >>

## Designing a Solar Charger (Lesson 4)

1. Students will explore the role of series and parallel wiring as they pertain to voltage and amperage.

2. Students will explore the processes involved with charging batteries and relate these processes to voltage and amperage.

3. Students will test photovoltaic modules to identify voltage and amperage outputs.

4. Students will design a system of wiring 3 V, 1.5 A modules together as a means to charge a

12 V lead-acid battery

5. Students will predict and test the effectiveness of their designed solar charger.

In this lesson, students will further explore the potential and challenges related to using photovoltaics to supplement the power needed to charge batteries in BEVs. Students will be provided with a 12 V lead

## Designing a Solar Phone Charger (Lesson 7)

1. Students will be able to design a device that can charge a phone with 4 hours of sun a day.

2. Students will use collected data and be able to support their design – i.e. the data will show that the unit will produce enough energy to charge a phone given it receives 4 hours of sun

a day.

3. Students will also be able to calculate efficiency from their power calculations.

4. Students will be able to compare efficiencies of their circuit to others tested in this unit.

5. Students can calculate how much energy 4 hours of sunlight can produce on the solar

modules they will use.

This is the culminating activity for the unit “Off the Grid.” Students will be given some restricted parameters around which to design a solar powered battery operated phone (or other USB device) charger

## Dual Axis Light Tracking (Lesson 4)

Students will create a solar tracker with two degrees of freedom.

Students will take the previous lesson and apply them in creating a light tracker with two degrees of freedom. The axis of rotation will be about the horizontal and vertical. Teams will have everything they need to make this build work. They have already created a tracker with one degree of freedom, so adding a second is a matter of replication... View full description >>

## Electrical Energy and Solar Module Efficiency (Lesson 1)

1. Students will document necessary terms in their journals

2. Students will be able to set up a multimeter to measure voltage

3. Students will be able to set up a multimeter to measure current

4. Students will be able to calculate power from data collected

5. Students should be able to measure the collector area of a solar module (area of solar cell(s) within

solar module) and represent this value in square meters (m^2)

This lesson will let students do research to define terms that will be used in this unit. They will record this information in their Journals, which can be scientific or simple homemade notebooks. This lesson will also introduce the multimeter, small solar modules, and how to calculate power. Students will compare the power of the module to its... View full description >>

## Energy Changes Forms (Lesson 3)

Students will understand that energy changes form. Students will be able to name different forms of energy and give examples of some of the transformations of energy that commonly occur. Students will find details and examples in informational text.

Students read informational text about the forms of energy and energy transformation. They use a graphic organizer in the form of a concept map to take notes on details and examples. Optional – using solar beads, solicit ideas about what energy transformation might be occurring that cause the beads to change color. View full description >>

## Energy Efficiency - Lighting (Lesson 4)

Students will understand what energy efficiency means, and learn how to choose energy efficient light bulbs. Students will determine which lightbulbs are the most efficient. Students will understand how energy efficiency relates to energy generation and climate change.

In this lesson, students will learn how to read light bulb packaging (lighting facts) and do a whole class experiment comparing a 60-watt incandescent to an equivalent CFL and an LED bulb. This experiment will be conducted using a kil-o-watt meter, engaging students with electricity content such related to power and energy usage in the home. ... View full description >>

## Energy Research Project (Lesson 3)

Students will be able to describe the basic principles of various forms of energy and write a detailed description of one of those forms of energy. This written product will include common uses of this form of energy, costs, and basic advantages and disadvantages of using this form of energy.

Students will build on their knowledge of renewable and non-renewable energy (third grade standards). Students will learn that all electricity production has impact on the earth. The class will do a compare/